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Seffner Historic Report

Lake Hooker, Lake Thonotosassa, Lake Weeks

The following is an excerpt from:

Submitted to:
Florida Department of State
Bureau of Historic Preservation
October 1998

Prepared by:
Hillsborough County Planning & Growth Management
601 East Kennedy Boulevard, P.O. Box 1110, Tampa, Florida 33601

* These excerpts have been taken from the Historic Resources Survey Report with permission given by the Hillsborough County Historic Resources Review Board on December 15, 2003. The intention is to help provide targeted historical information on the water bodies in Hillsborough County.

Seffner (Simmon’s Hammock & Lenna City)

Seffner’s history can be traced back to before the Armed Occupation Act of 1842,

making it one of Hillsborough County’s earliest communities. Just southeast of Lake

Thonotosassa and consisting of the present-day communities of Seffner and Dover, the

area was originally known as Simmon’s Hammock. Reverend Daniel Simmon migrated

from Savannah, Georgia, in 1829 to establish a Baptist mission to convert Seminole

Indians living near Lake Thonotosassa. During the next seven years the Howard and

Sanders families followed in the preacher’s footsteps, establishing farms in Simmon’s

Hammock. This era of Simmons Hammock was cut short with the beginning of the

Second Seminole War in late 1835. Reportedly, a group of Native Americans warned

Reverend Simmon that war was imminent because many Seminoles did not want to be

pushed off their land south of Tampa Bay. The members of the three households in the

hammock fled to the protection of Fort Brooke. Several months later, Rev. Simmon, his

wife, and their daughter moved to Mobile, Alabama. They were fortunate, for on

December 28, 1835, Major Francis Dade and 110 men marching from Fort Brooke to

Fort King were attacked by Seminole Indians and their maroon allies. Only three of

Dade’s command survived the attack. In February 1836, Major-General Edmond P.

Gaines led approximately 980 soldiers through Simmon’s Hammock on their way to

investigate the Dade massacre. Gaines reported that the three homesteads were burned

to the ground.i


The Second Seminole War effectively stopped people from moving into the region.

However, the Armed Occupation Act of 1842 breathed new life into the hammock, with

several people either claiming or homesteading property including John Parker, Laburn

Burnett, William Hooker, Thomas Weeks, John Weeks, Edmund Lee, James Goff, Seth

Howard, James Glasgow, John C. White, and James White. Settling near present-day

Dover, Captain John Parker moved from Sampson County, North Carolina, to Alachua

County, Florida, in 1831. After fighting in the Second Seminole War, Parker

homesteaded 160 acres in 1843 in Township 29 South, Range 21 East, Section 8.

Besides raising cattle, Parker served as sheriff and was elected to the Board of County

Commissioners. In 1850, Parker was listed a 32 year old farmer owning $500 worth of

property. Eleven people resided in the Parker house, ranging in age from two to 60, with

four classified as having attended school in the past year. Six years later, Parker moved

to Manatee County. By 1860 approximately 50 homesteads had been established

between what would become Seffner and Lake Thonotosassa.ii


The Civil War brought tremendous changes to Simmon’s Hammock. Many of its White

residents left, leaving the newly emancipated slaves behind. One such example was

Samuel B. Todd who in the 1850 Census was listed as a 30-year-old recently married

minister that owned $250 worth of property. After the Civil War he left his former slaves

his cotton plantation who went on to farm the land. Occupying the abandoned land,

many of the former slaves became successful farmers. More African Americans moved

into Simmons Hammock as racial violence escalated throughout surrounding counties in

the 1870s and 1880s.iii Whites also moved onto the recently vacated lands, but in some

instances did not fare as well as their African American counterparts. Despite the influx

of new settlers, much of Simmon’s Hammock remained sparsely settled. Mrs. Mary

Catherine (Barnwell) Williams moved from Alabama to Hillsborough County with her

family in December 1868. She was just a young girl at the time, but she recounted the

experience with great detail providing a glimpse into rural Hillsborough County life.

Leaving Alabama because of W.K. Barnwell’s, Mrs. William’s father, health, the family

arrived in Tampa and began looking for a home:


My father went out the next few days and looked for a farm. So he found

a small place of only sixty acres. He thought that was enough to start with

until he could get better acquainted with the country. So he moved out ten

miles from Tampa to what they call Selfner [sic.] now. There was no one

within four miles of us except one negro family. They were called the

Bob Golsons.

So father took Mr. John Robison, the family he had brought from Alabama

with us, and hired five negroes to help us on the farm. The doctors told

my father and mother they would be compelled to work out in the sun and

air. So father got one of the men to hitch a horse to the plow and bring

him up to the house. So that was the first time I had ever seen my father

in common clothes and at the plow handles. So my mother had a light hoe

and her and father went to their first work, which was for their health. So

their health got better and they were getting along fine and making very

fine crops. He had a very fine two horse team, two oxen, and a wagon in

which our cotton and other produce was hauled to Tampa to sell. He got

very good prices for his crops.


We farmed on until in 1872 we had a fine crop, but the houses on the farm was so old and

rotten we could scarcely live in them; and I had to walk three miles to school with no

houses between by father’s house and the school. I was frightened most to death on the

road, and when I saw a bunch of cattle or any wildcats it would scare me most to death.

Father sent my sister to Tampa to board as there was better schools in Tampa. There was

not much chance to buy books or anything else as the country was most uncivilized.

Most all over Florida was the same way at that time I guess....There was a very dry spring

and our house was most rotten. There was no lumber to build so father thought times

would get better and probably a saw mill might be put up so he could build. But my

mother had given one our negro men a hen that was sitting under the house. She told him

he could have the hen and her biddies if he would watch and keep the wildcats and other

varmints away from her chickens.


As it was very dry weather in May, it caused us a lot of trouble. The man took a torch of

fat-wood and went under the house to see after his hen, and some sparks of fire caught in

the dry rotten wood, and, as the wind was high, it caught fire. But we didn’t know it for

some time. Father got up about two o’clock in the morning and seen the house was on

fire. He woke my mother, sister, and me. We were so frightened we could hardly live.

The house had begun to fall in at the doors, so everything we had got burned except two

featherbeds and a few other things. So we were left flat. Father never even had pants,

shirt, shoes or a hat. So a negro man, Bob Golson, seen the fire and came over to help,

but we could do nothing as we had no water. We had to haul all the water we used one

mile on a sled with a horse, so it was very bad for all of us.

 So Bob Golson told father, “Mr. Barnwell, I is a negro but if you will wear some of my

clothes, I will lend you such as you need.” For the yellow fever was raging in Tampa at

that time, so poor father could not help himself. So he told Bob that he was almost a

millionaire, and now almost a pauper. It most killed my dear parents that he had to wear

the negro’s clothes until the quarantine was taken off of Tampa.


So we had a terrible time camping in old outhouses that was on the farm until father

could do better. So when the quarantine was lifted off of Tampa father went in to see

about getting some clothes and other things we all needed so badly. He wanted to see if

he could get some of his Mason friends to help him ro lend him money to build another

house. Mr. Crane and Mr. Wall was the men. They said to my father: “We are sorry to

tell you, Mr. Barnwell, but that land is not yours. We didn’t know you was going to buy

that place or we would have told you. But you was a stranger when you came to Tampa,

and you bought the place before we knew anything about it.” So they told father that the

place belonged to a widow woman, a Mrs. Post, and she was an invalid and had sold that

place twice before to get money to raise her children on. And the place could not ever be

sold because her husband, before his death, had deeded it to their great-grandchildren. So

they said he had just as well leave the place for he could never get it.iv

The Barnwells moved to Fort Odgen in Manatee County in December, 1872. Others

began to trickle into Simmon’s Hammock, but it was not until Henry Plant completed the

South Florida Railroad through the area in 1883 that area witnessed dramatic changes.

The railroad spurred the growth of the region by having a Mr. Gordon plat the soon-to-be

community of Seffner in the spring of 1884. Plant made Seffner the railroad

headquarters on March 4, 1885, with all of his railroad employees residing in the village.

Prior to platting only Frank Mathews and his family and J.E. Tomberlin and his family

lived in what would become Seffner proper. Sometime between 1883 and 1885, Seffner

was known as Lenna City, christened by Frederick P. Seffner, an Ohio immigrant, who

named the community for his daughter Lenna. Mr. Seffner established a post office on

September 26, 1884, and he was told that people would confuse the name Lenna City

with that of Lemon City in Dade County. Therefore, Mr. Seffner named the post office,

and consequently the community, after himself. Enough people moved to the area for

community members to petition the county for a school. On September 18, 1885, Seffner

was granted a school with J.E. Tomberlin, John Carney and John J. Evans serving as

trustees. Miss Burts of Plant City served as the first school teacher, and in 1886 J.M.

Branch donated an acre of land for the first school building to be erected.v As residents

celebrated their academic achievements, the Hillsborough County Real Estate Agency

gave a glowing description of the community:


Situated twelve miles from Tampa, on the South Florida Railroad, is the

new and thriving town of Seffner, a town destined to be one of the

important points on that road, from the fact of its being the right distance

from Tampa and on accounts of its admirable location. A commodious

depot building, erected by the railroad company, with the usual adjuncts of

telegraph and express offices, proclaim it a ‘regular’ station, an advantage

over temporary and flag stations at once seen. The town is alive to the

advantages of educational facilities, and through the efforts of the

inhabitants has secured the establishment of a public school, soon to be

taught in a building belonging to the community. There are already a

number stores, boarding houses, one newly finished hotel and two others

in prospect to cost $20,000, which will soon furnish all the

accommodations the traveling public can wish. Although there are as yet

no church buildings, services are held in a private hall, and we understand

that a suitable house will soon be built to accommodate the church-goers.


Two magnificent lakes–Hooker and Weeks–lying just east of the town,

afford all the piscatorial sport one wants and give boating and bathing

facilities. Around their margins can be found as fine grazing for stock as

is to be had anywhere. Luxurious orange groves, here to be seen on every

hand, give evidence of the superior quality of the land, which, by the way,

is not be spoken of simply as an orange growing country, but one will

grow almost anything–in fact, everything that can be raised in semitropical

Florida. Among other timber plentiful in this section may be

mentioned oak, hickory and pine, and two saw-mills are daily converting

the latter into building material. The Bowering Soap Manufacturing

Company is also located here, with a capital of $25,000, owned and

controlled by parties from Toronto,


Seffner had become a railroad boom town, one of the only unincorporated communities

throughout Hillsborough County that could claim “town” status because of the number

and type of businesses. In 1886 Seffner’s population reached 75 with four stores, three

steam saw mills, two hotels, and the soap factory. Josiah Yates operated a billiard and

pool hall, Charles W. Spooner worked as a butcher, L.B. Cullen bred white Leghorn

chickens, and John P. Hill sold real estate and notarized official documents out of his

general merchandise shop. Bruce Stone was a man of many trades. He owned Stone’s

Hotel, served as Seffner’s lawyer, and also sold real estate. Prospective residents could

purchase unimproved property at $10 an acre while improved land went for $30 an acre.

Like other communities throughout the region, citrus was an important crop with 24

people listed as growing anywhere from three to 15 acres of oranges.vii

Between 1886 and 1887 many Tampa residents were struck with yellow fever, a deadly

ailment in 19th century Florida. Seffner became a place of refuge for fearful Tampans

trying to escape. Like their constituents, members of Hillsborough County’s Democratic

convention fled to Seffner, holding their meeting in Charles Spencer’s post office. Even

T.C. Taliaferro, Tampa’s banker, left the stricken town, setting up a branch office in

Seffner.viii John P. Wall, a Tampa resident and one of the state’s most experienced

yellow fever doctors, submitted the following description of Seffner to the Supervising

Surgeon-General of the Marine-Hospital Service of the United States shortly after the

epidemic had subsided:

 Seffner is a railroad station on the South Florida Railroad, 12 miles from

Tampa, and Mango is on the same road 2 miles nearer Tampa. Both last

year and this there were a few cases of fever at Seffner in persons who had

left Tampa in the incubation stage, but no spread of the disease followed.

It was quite a refuge station last year and there was no restriction on

intercourse between Seffner and Tampa at any time. It was, moreover, the

change station for the railroad during last year, no trains coming nearer

Tampa. This year all of a family of seven went out to Seffner and were

sick except one, within a few days after removal. In the course of a month

this family returned to Tampa, and the one who was not sick at Seffner

was sick in Tampa, the remainder of the family escaping it in Tampa after

their return. There are several stores, two boarding-houses, with a

population of seventy-five or a hundred people at Seffner. The place is on

elevated ground, with fair natural drainage into a large savannah some 300

yards to the east, yet as before stated, notwithstanding the fact that persons

contracting the infection in Tampa were sick at Seffner there was no

spread and not a single indigenous case in the place. Seffner is 12 miles

this side of Plant City.ix


The yellow fever crisis passed and Seffner continued to prosper. W.H. Beckwith

established Seffner’s first packing house in 1887, marking the beginning of Seffner’s

fruit packing industry. A year later, community members organized the Seffner Baptist

Church of Christ and the Seffner Methodist Church, both in existence today.  Enough

people lived in the region for a Mr. Bennett to establish Seffner’s newspaper the South

Florida News in 1891, and reportedly, Seffner even had a cigar factory. Beyond oranges,

farmers also grew corn, Irish potatoes, grapefruit, strawberries, and cabbage. The freezes

of 1895 wiped out most of Seffner’s orange trees, and it would be several years before

the citrus industry rebounded. Because of the cold snaps, most of Seffner’s businesses

were forced to close their doors forever. Many newcomers to the area returned to the

North after the freeze, and others moved to Tampa.x

This citrus setback did not stop people from moving into the community for 672 people

celebrated the new century in Seffner. By 1910, the population dipped to 549, caused by

the redrawing of precinct boundaries in the 1910 census, but by 1930, Seffner’s

population nearly hit the 1000 mark with 931 residents.  As Seffner grew so did its

businesses. The impact of the 1895 freeze upon local commerce is readily witnessed by

only two businesses, both of which were general stores, operated in Seffner in 1911.

With the involvement of the United States in World War I, Tampa’s ship building

industry went into full swing. Consequently, many Seffner residents commuted by cars

and bicycles to Tampa to work on the ships. In response, new Seffner businesses opened

up by 1918. Seffner had a new weekly newspaper, the Seffner Eagle, a physician, a

justice of the peace, two general stores, a lumber mill, a barber, a garage, a racket store, a

real estate agent, and a notions and confectioner establishment. By 1925, the newspaper

appears to have gone out of business, but two general stores still served the community as

well as a grocery company, a bus line, three real estate agents, a barber, three notary

publics, a lumber company, a justice of the peace, a dairy, and a tourist camp. Seffner

benefitted from the land boom with the platting of four subdivisions to the west, north

and south of town, which added approximately 50 new families to the community.xi

The prosperity would not last. According to Lee Longstroth, a long time resident in the

Seffner/Mango area, everyone was impacted by the bust of the Florida land boom and the

stock market crash that followed: “We all hit the bottom in a hurry -- none of us

including thousands of others were no longer rich in lands or goods any longer...the

banks failed and took little savings small folks had into oblivion and ours went along

with that of others.”xii Even churches teetered on the brink of financial ruin. To make

ends meet, women would gather together and can fruit and vegetables and learn other

ways to stretch a dollar. Area businesses also joined forces and organized the Seffner

Board of Trade to try to improve the economic welfare of the region. Due to such efforts

and to the agricultural livelihood of many of Seffner residents, they were able to survive

the Great Depression.xiii Things began to look up during the second half of the 1930s

when Seffner was described as a:

 “a pleasant rural town once known as Lenna City....Today Seffner is a

prosperous town and shipping point for the farming and citrus industries

of the locality. The neighboring towns of Mango, Dover, Thonotosassa

and Valrico are represented in the Seffner Board of Trade.

Numerous lakes nearby, such as Lakes Hooker and Weeks, on the east,

and Lake Locarno, on the south, are favorite fishing grounds. The show

spot of Seffner is Spencer Park, located east of town. It is the assembly

point of the Confederate Veterans in Hillsborough and adjacent counties

during their reunion each year.”xiv


With the U.S. entry into World War II, nearly all of Seffner’s residents became involved

in the war effort. By 1945, the town’s population grew to 1329, consisting of 1078

Whites and 251 Blacks. Agriculture still dominated the community including a rabbit

ranch, a poultry hatchery, stock farms, citrus groves and plant nurseries. Other

businesses also existed including two garages, several stores, a restaurant, a barbershop,

an electric shop, a canning plant with 75 employees, and a tourist camp where political

rallies were held. Seffner also had a regional airport. With such amenities and proximity

to Tampa, Seffner continued to grow, and its agricultural dominance declined.  By 1990

Seffner’s population reached 5371 residing in 2095 houses. Seffner had suburbanized. xv




i. Bruton and Bailey, Plant City, 22; Covington, The Story of Southwestern Florida, Volume I, 82; Major General George A. McCall, Letters From The Frontiers. Facsimile Reproduction. (Gainesville, FL: University Presses of Florida, 1974[1868]), 299-307; D.B. McKay, Pioneer Florida, Volume II, 486.

ii. Bailey, “A Study of Hillsborough County’s History, Legend, and Folk Lore, with Implications for the Curriculum,” 259; Covington, The Story of Southwestern Florida, Volume I, 134,422-451; Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management, Eastern States, "General Land Office, Automated Records Project, Pre-1908 Homestead and Cash Entry Patents;" Leland Hawes, “Cattle Owner Hooker was a Civil, Military Leader,” Tampa Tribune August 26, 1990, 4H; Hillsborough County, Florida, 1850 Census, 15; Spessard Stone, “Profile of Capt. John Parker,” Sunland Tribune 17(1)(November 1991), 21-23.

iii. Canter Brown, Jr., African Americans on the Tampa Bay Frontier. Tampa Bay History Center Reference Library Series No. 3 (Tampa, Fl: Tampa Bay History Center, 1997), 42,58-60.

iv. Kate Barnwell Williams, “This is the Story of my Life,” Tampa Bay History 9(1)(1987), 52-54.

v. Ibid., 55-56; F.B. Akard, “Seffner History,” Literary Florida January, 1950, 35-37 (reprint of Charles H. Spencer, “Growth and Development of Seffner as Revealed by Tampa History Writer,” Tampa Tribune June 20, 1925); Bailey, “A Study of Hillsborough County’s History, Legend, and Folk Lore, with Implications for the Curriculum,”265; Bradbury and Hallock, A Chronology of Florida Post Offices, 76; Deed Book S, page 236, Clerk of the Circuit Court of Hillsborough County; Leland Hawes, “Looking Back at Seffner,” Tampa Tribune September 29, 1984, 1D; Morris, Florida Place Names, 220; Robinson, History of Hillsborough County, Florida, 78; Mrs. Alva J. Rowell and Mrs. Annette Lee, “History of ‘Lenna City’ Now Seffner and First Baptist Church of Seffner,” (unpublished manuscript, on file Seffner file, Planning and Growth Management Department of Hillsborough County); When History was in the Making, 9.

vi.Hillsborough County Real Estate Agency, Descriptive Pamphlet of Hillsborough County, 33.

vii. Florida State Gazetteer and Business Directory, 1886-1887, 405-406.

viii. Akard, “Seffner History,” 36; Hawes, “Looking Back at Seffner,” 1D-2D; Robinson, History of Hillsborough County, Florida, 79.

ix. Wall, “The Yellow Fever in Tampa, Plant City, Manatee, and Palmetto,” 68-69.

x. Akard, “Seffner History,” 37; Hazel Coleman, “First Baptist Church of Seffner Founded in 1888,” Brandon News March 30, 1977; Covington, The Story of Southwestern Florida, Volume I, 199-200; Hawes, “Looking Back at Seffner,” 2D; Annie Jamie, “Seffner–Past & Present,” Pony Express April 7, 1970, 4; Lee Longstroth, “Recollections of the Seffner Presbyterian Church and Community History,” (Hillsborough County–Seffner clipping file, USF Special Collections), 4; Cynthia D. Merritt, “Church Celebrates 100 Years of Service, Change in Seffner,” St. Petersburg Times September 4, 1988, 1; “Seffner Methodist is 89 Years Old,” Brandon News March 30, 1977; “Seffner Items,” Tampa Weekly Tribune April 18, 1893, 2; “Seffner News,” Tampa Weekly Tribune July 13, 1893, 1; “East Seffner Items,” Tampa Weekly Tribune September 28, 1893, 6.

xi. Mrs. T.J. Beaty, “Seffner–From the Days of the Seminoles–Up to the Present,” Plant City Courier September 27, 1927, 6; Florida State Gazetteer and Business Directory, 1911, 404; Florida State Gazetteer and Business Directory, 1918, 540-541; Florida State Gazetteer and Business Directory, 1925, 889; Longstroth, “Recollections of the Seffner Presbyterian Church and Community History,” 2; Robinson, History of Hillsborough County, Florida, 79; U.S. Bureau of the Census, Census reports, Volume I, Twelfth Census of the United States, Taken in the Year 1900, Population, Part I, 93; U.S. Bureau of the Census, Thirteenth Census of the United States, Taken in the Year 1910, Abstract of the Census, 549; U.S. Bureau of the Census, Fifteenth Census of the United Sates, 1930, Population Bulletin, Second Series, Florida Composition and Characteristics of the Population, 51.

xii. Longstorth, “Recollections of the Seffner Presbyterian Church and Community History,” 6.

xiii. Ibid.; Margie Bradford, “At 79, She Reflects,” Tampa Times July 30, 1970, 10A; Hawes, “Looking Back at Seffner,” 2D.

xiv. Federal Writers’ Project, Seeing Tampa, 132.

xv. “History of Seffner,” Pony Express December 1, 1970, 1; The Seventh Census of the State of Florida, 1945, 31; The Planning Commission, 1990 Census Population and Housing by Place, 2.